Beverages

mineral water, direct juice, fruit juice from concentrate, coconut water

Authenticity testing and geographical origin of beverages

Authenticity testing of a fruit juice such as apple juice, orange juice and others as well as coconut water is practically the identification of its naturalness and the detection of the undeclared additions. Authenticity reflects the quality of the product, protects the consumers, protects the integrity of the industry and defends the economy from regulatory problems. Since fruit production and price depend on imponderable factors the room for fraud, adulteration and mislabeling is high. The problem is focused on addition of cheap sweeteners, addition of organic acids, violation of the NFC (Not From Concentrate) declaration and mislabeled geographical origin. The last point also applies to mineral waters where addition of technical CO2 is another issue.

 

Fav-ImprintAnalytics   Geographical origin

Fav-ImprintAnalytics   Detection of water addition

Fav-ImprintAnalytics   Detection of organic acids

Fav-ImprintAnalytics   Detection of addition of C4-sugar/ethanol

Fav-ImprintAnalytics   Detection of addition of C3-sugar/ethanol

Imprint Analytics GmbH provides high quality accredited services, offering a competitive package of authenticity testing for fruit juice and other beverages.

Geographical origin

The geographical origin of the fruit juices is reflected on the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of the water or the juice water which are connected to the climatic conditions of the source area. The combination of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values gives the fingerprint of the local water which is imprinted into e.g. fruit juice’s water isotopic composition. To achieve high geographical resolution and credible results, Imprint Analytics uses its expertise and know-how to provide advanced customized origin testing based on the individualized needs of the costumer. The analytical method comprises the oxygen and the hydrogen isotopic analysis of the water or the water contained in fruit juice or coconut water, using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS).

Detection of added tech. CO2 in mineral water

Imprint Analytics determines the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) of CO2 in mineral water. Natural CO2 emerges from the inner earth and the carbon isotope ratio reflects the conditions of the point of exploitation of the water. Addition of exogenous CO2 is not forbidden but has to be declared.  The carbon isotope ratios provide clear proof of added CO2 in mineral waters. The analytical method comprises the carbon isotopic analysis of CO2 in mineral water by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS).

Detection of added water

Complying with the European Standards ENV 12141*1 and ENV 12142*2, Imprint Analytics determines the isotopic values of oxygen and hydrogen, of the water from natural fruit juices. The method differentiates the natural from the concentrated juices. The interpretation of the results is based on the different isotopic signature of the water derived from the fruit and the local meteoric water. The analytical method comprises the oxygen and the hydrogen isotopic analysis of the fruit juice water, using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS).

Detection of added C4-sugar

Complying with the European Standard ENV 12140*3 Imprint Analytics determines the stable carbon isotope ratio of sugars and pulp of fruit juices. Plants such as sugar cane belong to the C4 metabolic pathway. Measuring the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) of sugars from a fruit juice or coconut water and comparing the values to the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) of the juice pulp enables the detection of added C4-sugars. The analytical method comprises the carbon isotopic analysis of the juice sugars and pulp using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS).

Determination of added C3-sugar

Complying with the international literature*4, Imprint Analytics determines the deuterium distribution in ethanol produced after fermentation of fruit juice sugars. Plants such as sugar beet belong to the C3 metabolic pathway, similar to many fruits. Measuring the deuterium distribution enables the detection of C3 origin of sugars which are added to fruit juices or coconut waters. The method enables measurement of the site-specific deuterium isotope ratios (D/H) in ethanol obtained by fermentation of the fruit juice sugars, by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR©).

Detection of added organic acids

Addition of exogenous citric and malic acids to fruit juices is a common adulteration practice. Complying with the international literature*5, Imprint Analytics determines the stable carbon isotope ratio of the fruit juices’ organic acids and sugars. This approach is based on the isotopic composition differences of acids and sugars, which provide an internal calibration avoiding the absolute values. The analytical method comprises the carbon isotopic analysis of the fruit juice organic acids and sugars, using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS).

*1 ENV 12141. Fruit and vegetable juices – Determination of the stable oxygen isotope ratio (18O/16O) of water from fruits juices – Method using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.
*2 ENV 12142. Fruit and vegetable juices – Determination of the stable hydrogen isotope ratio (2H/1H) of water from fruits juices – Method using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.
*3 ENV 12140. Fruit and vegetable juices – Determination of the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) of sugars from fruits juices – Method using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.
*4 Jamin, E., at al. 1997. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45 (10), pp 3961–3967
*5 Guillou, C. et al., 1999. Analytica Chimica Acta 388, pp. 137-143

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